Sellers tend to inflate prices; buyers tend to see that prices are lower. Sellers tend to inflate prices, while buyers tend to see that prices are lower. A) Buyers consider prices to be negotiable; sellers are not, B) buyers are very concerned about price elasticity; sellers are not, C) sellers tend to inflate prices; buyers tend to see prices as lower, D) Buyers are very concerned about the prices of competition; sellers don't, E) buyers tend to inflate prices; sellers tend to see prices as lower. The price is simply the full consideration paid by the buyer to the seller.
Meanwhile, calculating the value is a more theoretical mathematical exercise. Despite the complexities of determining the value of a company, it remains a useful starting point for negotiations and obtaining funding. Factors that may decrease demand, on the other hand, include the exit of buyers from the market, a change in consumer preferences, or the greater availability of substitute products. Factors that can increase supply include the entry of new sellers into a market, the decline in demand for alternative uses for the good, or technological improvements that reduce production costs.
To calculate this theoretical value, the appraiser must make assumptions about how the open market would react, who the potential buyers are, how many years in the future a company can continue to operate, etc. Valuation calculations assume that a rational investor seeks to maximize profitability, but since both buyers and sellers are human beings, emotions can have a major influence on the decision-making process, regardless of the results of the objective analysis. The price may not be exclusively in cash and, instead, could be comprised of stocks, profits (seller's note), or other structures that could be used to close the “value gap” during negotiations between the buyer and the seller. Instead of sellers competing to attract buyers, buyers compete with each other because of the limited supply of available homes.
During the housing bubble of the early to mid-2000s, the housing market was considered to be a seller's market. Some buyers buy a business with the goal of integrating it into their existing operations, which could generate more value than if the acquired business were kept operating separately. Understanding the differences between price and value can provide a starting point for pricing a transaction, guiding negotiations, and moderating expectations when the price offered doesn't match the theoretical value. In a real estate buyer's market, homes tend to sell for less and stay in the market for a longer period of time before receiving an offer.
By changing the shape of supply and demand in a way that involves a lower market equilibrium price, these factors can create an advantage for buyers to negotiate lower prices. Value calculations assume that buyers have the same skills, when in reality potential buyers have different knowledge, negotiating skills, and financial strengths. There is greater competition in the market among sellers, who often must participate in a price war to attract buyers to bid on their homes. The term buyer's market is commonly used to describe real estate markets, but it applies to any type of market where there are more products available than people who want to buy them.
These assumptions may differ from how the transaction occurs once the sales process begins, resulting in possible differences between value and price. The opposite of the buyer's market is the seller's market, a situation in which changes in the factors that drive supply and demand give sellers an advantage over buyers in price negotiations. .